Тесла

Сообщение №13290 от Докажи 12 сентября 2003 г. 20:56
Тема: Тесла

12-09-03
Как я и обещал, фотография Теслы

Его недостроенная башня

Его патент для передачи энергии на расстояние(верхняя часть листа)

Вид передатчика(левая сторона листа)

передатчик без антенны(нижняя левая часть листа)

приёмник без антенны(нижняя правая часть листа)

При сканировании теряяется много информации, в тоже время то, что остаётся часто больше чем 64 кБ!
Поэтому и разрез листа на части.
Как видим кроме катушек никаких конденсаторов, контуров, усилителей.
А,С –спиральные катушки нге соеденённые между собой, но настоенные в резонанс,
антенны присоеденены в цент катушек.
B- провод(conductor)
G-стоит для генератора
прямоугольная пластина -заземление, кружочки L – лампочки, квадрат с М –мотор
D, D штрих, антенны(одновременно конденсаторы?- Тесла называет их просто … the elevated terminal D).
Это устройство не излучало энергию, при выключенной нагрузке на стороне приёмника!
Тесла старался держать ЭМ излучение своих антенн меньше одного процента!
Очень часто он подчёркивал , что его устройства не теряют свой КПД с увеличением расстояния передатчик/приёмник. Также он отмечал передачу всего звукового спектра при разговоре(в отличие от телефона, где эти спектры срезанны) если его передатчик работал в радиорежиме.
Ваш Д.



Отклики на это сообщение:

> 15-09-03
Никола Тесла провёл такой эксперимент. К механическому генератору на 20 кГц подключался, на расстоянии 6 метров с помощью оголённых проводов толщиной в 2мм, конденсатор в режиме резонанса (индуктивность якоря генератора измерялась в минимуме и максимуме и для расчётов конденсатора
бралась усреднённая индуктивность).
На самом генераторе измерялись 65 Вольт. Передвигая вольтметр в сторону конденсатора Тесла измерял увеличение напряжения вплоть до 120 Вольт на конденсаторе.
Проблема – соединение индуктивность-конденсатор было параллельным.
Ожидать увеличение напряжения по теории не было смысла.

Статья из журнала“Electrical World” 21/02/1891 6/s172 -1/s311 12 страниц
Phenomena of alternating currents of very high frequency.
Для тех кто хочет читать оригинал на английском языке:
ISBN 3-89539-248-0 том 1,
ISBN 3-89539-249-9 том 2( 43 Евро про том).

Ваш Д.


> > 15-09-03
> Никола Тесла провёл такой эксперимент. К механическому генератору на 20 кГц подключался, на расстоянии 6 метров с помощью оголённых проводов толщиной в 2мм, конденсатор в режиме резонанса (индуктивность якоря генератора измерялась в минимуме и максимуме и для расчётов конденсатора
> бралась усреднённая индуктивность).
> На самом генераторе измерялись 65 Вольт. Передвигая вольтметр в сторону конденсатора Тесла измерял увеличение напряжения вплоть до 120 Вольт на конденсаторе.
> Проблема – соединение индуктивность-конденсатор было параллельным.
> Ожидать увеличение напряжения по теории не было смысла.

Ошибочное утверждение.
При переменном токе в линии устанавливается стоячая волна.
На разных расстояниях можно намерять что угодно.
Это, по сути своей, трансформатор.



> > Проблема – соединение индуктивность-конденсатор было параллельным.
> > Ожидать увеличение напряжения по теории не было смысла.

> Ошибочное утверждение.
> При переменном токе в линии устанавливается стоячая волна.
> На разных расстояниях можно намерять что угодно.
> Это, по сути своей, трансформатор.

На счёт стоячей волны идея хорошая но не верная!
Тесла отличал стоячие волны и говорил про узлы и пучности. В этом примере см. оригинал, он говорил про постепенное! увеличение напряжения при приближении к конденсатору.
potential is required, the inductive relation between the prirnary or exciting and secondary or armature circuit must be the closest possible; whereas, in an apparatus for constant current just the opposite is required. Furthermore, the opposition to the current's flow in the induced circuit must be as small as possible in the former and as great as possible in the latter case. But opposition to a current's flow may be caused in more than one way. It may be caused by ohmic resistance of self-induction. One may make the induced circuit of a dynamo machine or transformer of such high resistance, that when operating devices of considerably smaller resistance within very wide limits a nearly constant current is maintained. But such high resistance involves a great loss in power, hence it is not practicable. Not so self-induction. Self-induction does not necessarily mean loss of power. The moral is, use self-induction instead of resistance. There is however, a circumstance which favours the adoption of this plan, and this is, that a very high self-induction may be obtained cheaply by surrounding a comparatively small length of wire more or less completely with iron, and, furthermore, the effect may be exalted at will by causing a rapid undulation of the current. To sum up, the requirements for constant current are: Weak magnetic connection between the induced and inducing circuits, greatest possible self-induction with the least resistance, greatest practicable rate of change of the current. Constant potential, on the other hand, requires: Closest magnetic connection between the circuits, steady induced current, and, if possible, no reaction. If the latter conditions could be fully satisfied in a constant potential machine, its output would surpass many times that of a machine primarily designed to give constant current. Unfortunately, the type of machine in which these conditions may be satisfied is of little practical value, owing to the small electromotive force obtainable and the difficulties in taking off the current.
With their keen inventor's instinct, the now successful arc-light men have early recognized the desiderata of a constant current machine. Their arc light machines have weak fields, large armatures, with a great length of copper wire and few commutator segments to produce great variations in the current's strength and to bring self-induction into play. Such machines may maintain within considerable limits of variation in the resistance of the circuit a practically constant current. Their output is of course correspondingly diminished, and, perhaps with the object in view not to cut down the output too much, a simple device compensating exceptional variations is employed. The undulation of the current is almost essential to the commercial success of an arc-light system. It introduces in the circuit a steadying element taking the place of a large ohmic resistance, without involving a great loss in power, and, what is more important, it allows the use of simple clutch lamps, which with a current of a certain number of
Impulses per second, best suitable for each particular lamp, will, if properly attended to, regulate even better than the finest clock-work lamps. This discovery has been made by the writer -- several years too late.
It has been asserted by competent English electricians that in a constantcurrent machine or transformer the regulation is effected by varying the phase of the secondary current. That this view is erroneous may be easily proved by using, instead of lamps, devices each possessing self-induction and capacity or self-induction and resistance -- that is, retarding and accelerating components -- in such proportions as to not affect materially the phase of the secondary current. Any number of such devices may be inserted or cut out, still it was be found that the regulation occurs, a constant current being maintained, while the electromotive force is varied with the number of the devices. The change, of phase of the secondary current is simply a result following from the changes in resistance, and, though secondary reaction is always of more or less importance, yet the real cause of the regulation lies in the existence of the conditions above enumerated. It should be stated however, that in the case of a machine the above remarks are to be restricted to the cases in which the machine is independently excited. If the excitation be effected by commutating the armature current, then the fixed position of the brushes makes any shifting of the neutral line of the utmost importance and it may not be thought immodest of the writer, to mention that as far as records go, he seems to have been the first who has successfully regulated machines by providing a bridge connection between a point of the external circuit and the commutator by means of a third brush. The armature and field being properly proportioned and the brushes placed in their determined positions a constant current or constant potential resulted from the shifting of the diameter of commutation by the varying loads.

отсюда

In connection with machines of such high frequencies the condenser affords an especially interesting study. It is easy to raise the electromotive force of such a machine to four or five times the value by simply connecting the condenser to the circuit and the writer has continually used the condenser for the purposes of regulation as suggested by Blakesley in his book on alternate currents in which he has treated the most frequently occurring condenser problems with exquisite simplicity and clearness. The high frequency allows the use of sma11 capacities and renders investigation easy. But although in most of the experiments the result may be foretold, some phenomena observed seem at first curious. One experiment performed three or four months ago with such a machine and a condenser may serve as an illustration. A machine was used giving about 20,000 alternations per second. Two bare wires about twenty feet long and two millimetres in diameter in close proximity to each other were connected to the terminals of the machine at the one end and to a condenser at the other. A small transformer without an iron core, of course, was used to bring the reading within range of a Cardew voltmeter by connecting the voltmeter to the secondary. Ort the terminals of the condenser the electromotive force was about 120 volts and from there inch by inch it gradually fell, until at the terminals of the machine it was about 65 volts. It was virtually as though the condenser were a generator and the line and armature circuit simply a resistance connected to it. The writer looked for a case of resonance but he was unable to augment the effect by varying the capacity very carefully and gradually or by changing the speed of the machine. A case of pure resonance he was unable to obtain. When a condenser was connected to the terminals of the machine -- the self induction of the armature being first determined in the maximum and minimum position and the mean value taken -- the capacity which gave the highest electromotive force corresponded most nearly to that which just counteracted the self induction with the existing frequency. If the capacity was increased or diminished, the electromotive force fell as expected.


до сюда


With frequencies as high as the above mentioned the condenser effects are of enormous importance. The condenser then becomes a highly efficient apparatus capable of transferring considerable energy.
The writer has thought machines of high frequencies may find use at least in cases when transmission at great distances is not contemplated. The increase of the resistance may be reduced in the conductors and exalted in the devices when heating effects are wanted, transformers may be made of higher efficiency and greater outputs and valuable results may be secured by means of condensers. In using machines of high frequency the writer has been able to observe condenser effects which would have otherwise escaped his notice. He has been very much interested in the phenomenon observed on the Ferranti main which has been so much spoken of. Opinions have been expressed by competent electricians but up to the present all still seems to be conjecture. Undoubtedly in the views expressed the truth must be contained but as the opinions differ some must be erroneous. Upon seeing the diagram of M. Ferranti in the Electrician of Dec. 19 the writer has formed his opinion of the effect. In the absence of all the necessary data he must content himself to express in words the process which, in his opinion, must undoubtedly occur. The condenser brings about two effects: (1) It changes the phases of the currents in the branches; (2) it changes the strength of the currents. As regards the change in phase, the effect of the condenser is to accelerate the current in the secondary at Deptford and to retard it in the primary at London. The former has the effect of diminishing the self-induction in the Deptford primary, and this means lower electromotive force on the dynamo. The retardation
of the primary at London, as far as merely the phase is concerned, has little or no effect since the phase of the current in the secondary in London is not arbitrarily kept.
Now, the second effect of the condenser is to increase the current in both the branches. It is immaterial whether there is equality, between the currents or not; but it is necessary. to point out, in order to sec the importance of the Deptford step-up transformer, that an increase of the current in both the branches produces opposite effects. At Deptford it means further lowering of the electromotive force at the primary, and at London it means increase of the electromotive force at the secondary. Therefore, all the things co-act to bring about the phenomenon observed. Such actions, at least, have been formed to take place under similar conditions. When the dynamo is connected directly to the main, one can sec that no such action can happen.
The writer has been particularly interested in the suggestions and views expressed by Mr. Swinburne. Mr. Swinburne has frequently honoured him by disagreeing. with his views. Three years ago, when the writer, against the prevailing opinion of engineers, advanced an open circuit transformer, Mr. Swinburne was the first to condemn it by stating in the Electrician: "The (Tesla) transformer must be inefficient; it has magnetic poles revolving, and has thus an open magnetic circuit". Two years later Mr. Swinburne becomes the champion of the open circuit transformer, and offers to convert him. But, tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur in illis.
(лат. Время изменяется, и мы изменяемся с ним)
The writer cannot believe in the armature reaction theory as expressed in Industries, though undoubtedly there is some truth in it. Mr. Swinburne's interpretation, however, is so broad that it may mean anything.
Mr. Swinburne seems to have been the first who has called attention to the heating of the condensers. The astonishment expressed at that by the ablest electrician is a striking illustration of the desirability to execute experiments on a large scale. To the scientific investigator, who deals with the minutest quantities, who observes the faintest effects, far more credit is due than to one who experiments with apparatus on an industrial scale; and indeed history of science has recorded examples of marvellous skill, patience and keenness of observation. But however great the skill, and however keen the observer's perception, it can only be of advantage to magnify an effect and thus facilitate its study. Had Faraday carried out but one of his experiments on dynamic induction on a large scale it would have resulted in an incalculable benefit.
In the opinion of the writer, the heating of the condensers is due to three distinct causes: first, leakage or conduction; second, imperfect elasticity in the dielectric and, third, surging of the charges in the conductor. In many experiments he has been confronted with the problem of transferring the greatest possible amount of energy across a dielectric. For instance, he has made incandescent lamps the ends of the filaments being completely sealed in --lass, be attached to interior condenser coatings so that all the energy required had to be transferred across the glass with a condenser surface of no more than a few centimetres square. Such lamps would be a practical success with sufficiently high 1i-equencies. With alternations as high as 15,000 per second it was easy to bring the filaments to incandescence. With lower frequencies this could also be effected but the potential difference had of course to be increased. The writer has then found that the -lass gets, after a while, perforated and the vacuum is impaired. The higher the frequency the longer the lamp can withstand. Such a deterioration of the dielectric always takes place when the amount of energy transferred across a dielectric of definite dimensions and by a given frequencies is too great. Glass withstands best, bet even glass is deteriorated. In this case the potential difference on the plates is of course too great and losses by conduction and imperfect elasticity result. If it is desirable to produce condensers capable to stand differences of potential then the only dielectric which will involve no losses is a gas under pressure. The writer has worked with air under enormous pressures, but there are u great many practical difficulties in that direction. He thinks that in order to make the condensers of considerable practical utility, higher frequencies should be used though such a plan has besides others the great disadvantage that the system would become very unfit for the operation of motors.
If the writer does not err Mr. Swinburne has suggested a way of exciting an alternator by means of a condenser. For a number of years past the writer has carried on experiments with the object in view of producing a practical self-exciting alternator. He has in a variety of ways succeeded in producing some excitation of the magnets by means of alternating currents which were not commutated by mechanical devices. Nevertheless his experiments have revealed a fact which stands as solid as the rock of Gibraltar. No practical excitation can be obtained with a single periodically varying and not commutated current. The reason is that the changes in the strength of the exciting current produce corresponding changes in the field strength, with the result of inducing currents in the armature and these currents interfere with these produced by the motion of the armature through the field the former being a quarter phase in advance of the latter. If the field be laminated, no excitation can he produced; lf it be not laminated some excitation is produced but the magnets are heated. By combining two exciting currents displaced by a quarter phase, excitation may be produced in both cases, and if the magnet be not laminated the heating effect is comparatively small, as a uniformity in the field strength is maintained and were it possible to produce a perfectly uniform field excitation on this plan would give quite practical results. lf such results are to be secured by the use of a condenser as suggested by Mr. Swinburne it is necessary to combine two circuits separated by a quarter phase that is to say the armature coils must be wound in two sets and connected to one or two independent condensers. The writer has done some work in that direction, but must defer the description of the devices for some future time.
EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS OF HIGH FREQUENCY
(Published in the Electrical Engineer, March 19, 1891)
In the Electrical Engineer issue of 11th inst., I find a note of Prof. Elihu Thomson relating to some of my experiments with alternating currents of very high frequency.
Prof. Thomson calls the attention of your readers to the interesting fact that he has performed some experiments in the same line. I was not quite unprepared to hear this, as a letter from him has appeared in the Electrician a few months ago, in which he mentions a small alternate current machine which was capable of giving, I believe, 5,000 alternations per second, from which letter it likewise appears that his investigations on that subject are of a more recent date.
Prof. Thomson describes an experiment with a bulb enclosing a carbon filament which was brought to incandescence by the bombardment of the molecules of the residual gas when the bulb was immersed in water, "rendered slightly conducting by salt dissolved therein," ('?) and a potential of 1,000 volts alternating 5,000 time a second applied to the carbon strip. Similar experiments have, of course, been performed by many experimenters, the only distinctive feature in Prof. Thompson’s experiment being the comparatively high rate of alternation. These experiments can also be performed with a steady difference of potential between the water and the carbon strip in which case, of course, conduction through the glass takes place, the difference of potential required being in proportion to the thickness of the glass. With 5,000 alternations per second, conduction still takes place, but the condenser effect is preponderating. It goes, of course, without saying that the heating of the glass in such a case is principally due to the bombardment of the molecules, partly also to leakage or conduction, but it is an undeniable fact that the glass may also be heated merely by the molecular displacement. The interesting feature in my experiments was that a lamp would light up n when brought near to an induction coil, and that it coil be held in the hand and the filament brought to incandescence.


Ваш Д.


>
> > > Проблема – соединение индуктивность-конденсатор было параллельным.
> > > Ожидать увеличение напряжения по теории не было смысла.

> > Ошибочное утверждение.
> > При переменном токе в линии устанавливается стоячая волна.
> > На разных расстояниях можно намерять что угодно.
> > Это, по сути своей, трансформатор.

> На счёт стоячей волны идея хорошая но не верная!
> Тесла отличал стоячие волны и говорил про узлы и пучности. В этом примере см. оригинал, он говорил про постепенное! увеличение напряжения при приближении к конденсатору.

Я к сожалению, английский знаю хуже, чем Никола.
Но технику и теорию радиосвязи немножко лучше, чем он.
При 20 килогерцах четверть волны равна 3750 метров.
Конечно же будет постепенное увеличение амплитуды на шести метрах.


>
> > > Проблема – соединение индуктивность-конденсатор было параллельным.
> > > Ожидать увеличение напряжения по теории не было смысла.

> > Ошибочное утверждение.
> > При переменном токе в линии устанавливается стоячая волна.
> > На разных расстояниях можно намерять что угодно.
> > Это, по сути своей, трансформатор.

> На счёт стоячей волны идея хорошая но не верная!
> Тесла отличал стоячие волны и говорил про узлы и пучности. В этом примере см. оригинал, он говорил про постепенное! увеличение напряжения при приближении к конденсатору.

Я к сожалению, английский знаю хуже, чем Никола.
Но технику и теорию радиосвязи немножко лучше, чем он.
При 20 килогерцах четверть волны равна 3750 метров.
Конечно же будет постепенное увеличение амплитуды на шести метрах.


Бесконтактная карта в метро. Там внутри стоит чип для идентификации, который запитывается от антенны (сама карточка)...


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